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  • Herdegen-Radwan M., Phillips K.P., Babik W., Mohammed R.S., Radwan. J. 2021. Balancing selection versus allele and supertype turnover in MHC class II genes in guppies. Heredity 126: 548-560. pdf
  • Palomar G., Dudek K., Wielstra B., Jockusch E.L., Vinkler M., Arntzen J.W., Ficetola G.F., Matsunami M., Waldman B., Tesicky M., Zielinski P. and Babik W. 2021. Molecular Evolution of Antigen-Processing Genes in Salamanders: Do They Coevolve with MHC Class I Genes? Genome Biology and Evolution 13. pdf
  • Rancilhac L., Irisarri I., Angelini C., Arntzen J.W., Babik W., Bossuytf F., Künzel S., Lüddecke T., Pasmansj F., Sanchez E., Weisrock D., Veith M., Wielstra B., Steinfartz S., Hofreiter M., Philippe H., Vences M. 2021. Phylotranscriptomic evidence for pervasive ancient hybridization among Old World salamanders. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 155. pdf 


  • Niedzicka M., Głowacki B.M.,Zieliński P., Babik W. 2020. Morphology is a poor predictor of interspecific admixture - the case of two naturally hybridizing newts Lissotriton montandoni and Lissotriton vulgaris (Caudata: Salamandridae). Amphibia Reptilia 41: 489-500, pdf
  • Pabijan M., Palomar G., Antunes B., Antoł W., Zieliński P., Babik W. 2020. Evolutionary principles guiding amphibian conservation.Evolutionary Applications 13: 857-878. pdf 
  • Radwan J., Babik W., Kaufman J., Lenz T.L,. Winternitz J. 2020. Advances in the Evolutionary Understanding of MHC Polymorphism. Trends in Genetics 36: 298-311. pdf


  • Gaczorek T.S., Zieliński P., Babik W. 2019. Masivve introgression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in newt hybrid zones. Molecular Ecology 28: 4798-4810. pdf
  • Horváthová, T., Babik, W., Kozłowski, J., and Bauchinger, U. 2019. Vanishing benefits-The loss of actinobacterial symbionts at elevated temperatures.Journal of Thermal Biology 82: 222-228. pdf 
  • Talarico L., Babik W., Marta S., Mattoccia M. 2019. Genetic drift shaped MHC IIB diversity of an endangered anuran species within the Italian glacial refugium. Journal of Zoology 307: 61-70. pdf 
  • Talarico L., Babik W., Marta S., Mattoccia M., Pietrocini V., Mattoccia M. 2019. MHC structuring and divergent allele advantage in a urodele amphibian: a hierarchical multi-scale approach. Heredity 123: 593-607. pdf
  • Zieliński P., Dudek K., Arntzen J.W., Palomar G., Niedzicka M., Fijarczyk A., Liana M., Cogǎlniceanu D., Babik W. 2019. Differential introgression across newt hybrid zones: Evidence from replicated transects. Molecular Ecology 28: 4811-4824. pdf



  • Ejsmond M.J.,Phillips K.P., Babik W., Radwan J. 2018. The role of MHC supertypes in promoting trans-species polymorphism remains an open question. Nature Communications 9: 4362.pdf

  • Fijarczyk A., Dudek K., Niedzicka M., Babik W. 2018. Balancing selection and introgression fo newt immune-response genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 285: 20180819. pdf
  • Kotlík P., Marková S., Konczal M., Babik W., Searle J.B. 2018. Genomics of end-Pleistocene population replacement in a small mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285: 20172624. pdf
  • Wielstra B., Canestrelli D., Cvijanovi´c M., Denoël M., Fijarczyk A., Jablonski D. ,Liana M.,  Naumov B. , Olgun K., Pabijan M.,Pezzarossa A. ,Popgeorgiev  G., Salvi D. , Si Y.  , Sillero N., Sotiropoulos K., Zielinski P.,Babik W. 2018. The distributions of the six species constituting the smooth newt species complex (Lissotriton vulgaris sensu lato and L. montandoni) – an addition to the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe, Amphibia-Reptilia 39: 252-259.pdf



  • Pabijan M., Zieliński P., Dudek K, Stuglik M., Babik W. 2017. Isolation and gene flow in a speciation continuum in newts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 116: 1-12. pdf
  • Wielstra B., Zieliński P., Babik W. 2017. The Carpathians hosted extra-Mediterranean refugia-within-refugia during the Pleistocene Ice Age: genomic evidence from two newt genera. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 122(3): 605-613.  pdf
  • Niedzicka M., Dudek K., Fijarczyk A., Zieliński P., Babik W. 2017. Linkage Map of Lissotriton Newts Provides Insight into the Genetic Basis of Reproductive Isolation. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics 7(7): 2115-2124. pdf



  • Fijarczyk A., Dudek K., Babik W. 2016. Selective landscapes in newt immune genes inferred from patterns of nucleotide variation. Genome Biology and Evolution 8(11): 3417-3432. pdf
  • Horvathova T., Babik W., Bauchinger U. 2016. Biofilm feeding: Microbial colonization of food promotes the growth of a detritivorous arthropod. Zookeys 577: 2541. pdf
  • Joag R., Stuglik M., Konczal M., Plesnar-Bielak A., Skrzynecka A., Babik W., Radwan J. 2016. Transcriptomics of intralocus sexual conflict: gene expression patterns in females change in response to selection on a male secondary sexual trait in the bulb mite. Genome Biology and Evolution 8(8): 2351-2357. pdf
  • Konczal M., Koteja P., Orlowska-Feuer P., Radwan J., Sadowska E.T., Babik W. 2016. Genomic response to selection for predatory behavior in a mammalian model of adaptive radiation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33(9): 2429-2440. pdf
  • Konowalik A., Najbar A., Babik W., Steinfatrz S., Ogielska M. 2016. Amphibia-Reptilia 37: 405-415. pdf
  • Niedzicka, M., Fijarczyk, A., Dudek, K., Stuglik, M., and Babik, W. 2016. Molecular Inversion Probes for targeted resequencing in non-model organisms. Scientific Reports 6. doi: 10.1038/srep24051. pdf
  • Stuglik M.T., Babik W. 2016. Genomic heterogeneity of historical gene flow between two species of newts inferred from transcriptome data. Ecology and Evolution 6(13): 4513-4525. pdf
  • Zielinski P., Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Dudek K., Babik W. 2016. Divergence history of the Carpathian and smooth newts modelled in space and time. Molecular Ecology 25: 3912-3928. pdf



  • Konczal M., Babik W., Radwan J., Sadowska E.T., Koteja P. 2015. Initial Molecular-Level Response to Artificial Selection for Increased Aerobic Metabolism Occurs Primarily through Changes in Gene Expression, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32(6):1461–1473 pdf
  • Giska I., Sechi P., Babik W. 2015. Deeply divergent sympatric mitochondrial lineages of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus are not reproductively isolated. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15:217.  pdf
  • Najbar A., Babik W. , Najbar B., Ogielska M. 2015. Genetic structure and differentiation of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra at the northern margin of its range in the Carpathians . Amphibia-Reptilia 36: 301-311.  pdf
  • Kajtoch Ł.,  Kubisz D. , Heise W.,  Mazur  M.A., Babik W. 2015. Plant–herbivorous beetle networks: molecular characterization of trophic ecology within a threatened steppic environment. Molecular Ecology 24, 4023–4038 pdf
  • Giska I., Babik W., Van Gestel C.A.M.,  Van Straalen N., Laskowski R. 2015. Genome-wide genetic diversity of rove beetle populations along a metal pollution gradient.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 119 98–105 pdf
  • Fijarczyk A., Babik W. 2015. Detecting balancing selection in genomes: limits and prospects. Molecular Ecology 24, 3529–3545 pdf
  • Heise W., Babik W., Kubisz D., Kajtoch Ł. 2015. A three-marker DNA barcoding approach for ecological studies of xerothermic plants and herbivorous insects from central Europe. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society,177, 576–592 pdf
  • Pabijan M., Zielinski P., Dudek K., Chloupek M., Sotiropoulos K., Liana M., Babik W. 2015. The dissection of a Pleistocene refugium: phylogeography of the smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the Balkans. Journal of Biogeography 42, 671–683 pdf
  • Winternitz J. C., Promerova M., Polakova R., Vinker M.,  Schnitzer J., Munclinger P., Babik W., Radwan J., Bryja J.,  Albrecht T. 2015. Effects of heterozygosity and MHC diversity on patterns of extra-pair paternity in the socially monogamous scarlet rosefinch. Behaviour Ecology Sociobiology 69:459 – 469.  pdf
  • Wielstra B., Babik W., Arntzen J.W 2015. The crested newt Triturus cristatus recolonized temperate Eurasia from an extra-Mediterranean glacial refugium. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114, 574–587 pdf
  • Babik W., Dudek K., Fijarczyk A., Pabijan M., Stuglik M., Szkotak R., Zieliński P. 2015. Constraint and Adaptation in newt Toll-Like Receptor Genes. Genome Biology and Evolution 7(1):81–95 pdf



  • Herdegen M., Babik W., Radwan J. 2014. Selective pressures on MHC class II genes in the guppy ( Poecilia reticulata ) as inferred by hierarchical analysis of population structure.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27, 2347-2359 pdf
  • Kuduk K., Babik W., Bellemain E., Valentini A., Zedrosser A., Taberlet P., Kindberg J., Swenson J.E., Radwan J. 2014.  No Evidence for the Effect of MHC on Male Mating Success in the Brown Bear. PLOS ONE 9(12): e113414. pdf
  • Radwan J., Kuduk K., Levy E., Lebas N., Babik W. 2014. Parasite load and MHC diversity in undisturbed and agriculturally modified habitats of the ornate dragon lizard. Molecular Ecology  23, 5966–5978 pdf
  • Biedrzycka A., Konior M., Babik W., Świsłocka M., Ratkiewicz M. 2014. Admixture of two phylogeographic lineages of the Eurasian beaver in Poland. Mammalian Biology 79, 287-296 pdf
  • Kajtoch  Ł., Mazur M., Kubisz D.,  Mazur MA., Babik W. 2014.  Low effective population sizes and limited connectivity in xerothermic beetles: implications for the conservation of an endangered habitat.  Animal Conservation 17, 454–466 pdf
  • Wielstra B., Arntzen J.W., van der Gaag K.J., Pabijan M., Babik W. 2014. Data Concatenation, Bayesian Concordance and Coalescent-Based Analyses of the Species Tree for the Rapid Radiation of Triturus Newts. PLoS ONE 9(10): e111011. pdf
  • Herdegen M., Alexander H.J., Babik W., Mavárez J., Breden F. Radwan J. 2014. Population structure of guppies in north-eastern Venezuela, the area of putative incipient speciation. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14: 28. pdf
  • Kajtoch Ł., Kubisz D., Gutowski J.M., Babik W. 2014.Evolutionary units of Coraebus elatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in central and eastern Europe – implications for origin and conservation. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 7: 41-54. pdf
  • Konczal M., Koteja P., Stuglik M.T., Radwan J., Babik W. 2014. Accuracy of allele frequency estimation using pooled RNA-Seq. Molecular Ecology Resources, 14: 381-392. pdf 
  • Stuglik M.T., Babik W., Prokop Z., Radwan J. 2014. Alternative reproductive tactics and sex-biased gene expression: the study of the bulb mite transcriptome. Ecology and Evolution, 4: 623-632. pdf
  • Zieliński P., Stuglik M.T., Dudek K., Konczal M., Babik W. 2014. Development, validation and high-throughput analysis of sequence markers in nonmodel species. Molecular Ecology Resources, 14: 352-360. pdf
  • Zieliński P., Dudek K., Stuglik M.T., Liana M., Babik W.2014. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Reveal Genetic Structuring of the Carpathian Newt and Provide Evidence of Interspecific Gene Flow in the Nuclear Genome. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97431. pdf


  • Herdegen M., Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Konowalik A., Babik W., Radwan J. 2013. Heterozygosity, sexual ornament and body size in the crested newt. Journal of Zoology, 291: 146-153. pdf
  • Zieliński P., Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Wielstra B., Szkotak R., Covaciu-Marcov S.D., Cogalniceanu D., Babik W. 2013. No evidence for nuclear introgression despite complete mtDNA replacement in the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni). Molecular Ecology, 22: 1884-1903. pdf



  • Babik W., Kawałko A., Wójcik J.M., Radwan J. 2012. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (MHC I) Variation in the European Bison (Bison bonasus). Journal of Heredity, 103: 349-359. pdf
  • Kajtoch Ł., Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Babik W. 2012.Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in the Centricnemus leucogrammus weevil. Molecular Biology Reports, 29: 11131-11136. pdf
  • Kuduk K., Babik W., Bojarska K., Sliwinska E.B., Kindberg J., Taberlet P., Swenson J.E., Radwan J. 2012. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12: 197. pdf
  • Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Zieliński P., Radwan J., Babik W. 2012. Interspecific hybridization increases MHC class II diversity in two sister species of newts. Molecular Ecology, 21: 887–906. pdf
  • Promerová M., Babik W., Bryja J., Albrecht T., Stuglik M., Radwan J. 2012. Evaluation of two approaches to genotyping major histocompatibility complex class I in a passerine—CE-SSCP and 454 pyrosequencing. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12: 285–292. pdf
  • Radwan J., Babik W. 2012.The genomics of adaptation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279: 5024-5028. pdf
  • Radwan J., Zagalska-Neubauer M., Cichoń M., Sendecka J., Kulma K., Gustafsson L., Babik W. 2012. MHC diversity, malaria and lifetime reproductive success in collared flycatchers. Molecular Ecology, 21: 2469–2479. pdf



  • Fijarczyk A., Nadachowska K., Hofman S., Litvinchuk S.N., Babik W., Stuglik M., Gollmann G., Choleva L., Cogălniceanu D., Vukov T., Džukić G., Szymura J.M. 2011. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata supports their independent histories. Molecular Ecology, 20: 3381-3398. pdf
  • Stark C., Michalski S.G., Babik W., Winterfeld G., Durka W. 2011. Strong genetic differentiation between Gymnadenia conopsea and G. densiflora despite morphological similarity. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 293: 213-226. pdf
  • Stuglik M.T., Radwan J., Babik W. 2011. jMHC: software assistant for multilocus genotyping of gene families using next-generation amplicon sequencing. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11: 739-742. pdf



  • Babik W. 2010. Methods for MHC genotyping in non-model vertebrates. Molecular Ecology Resources, 10: 237-251. pdf
  • Babik W., Stuglik M., Qi W., Kuenzli M., Kuduk K., Koteja P., Radwan J. 2010. Heart transcriptome of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus): towards understanding the evolutionary variation in metabolic rate. BMC Genomics, 11: 390. pdf
  • Ejsmond M.J., Babik W., Radwan J. 2010. MHC allele frequency distributions under parasite-driven selection: A simulation model. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 332. pdf
  • Kloch A., Babik W., Bajer A., Siński E., Radwan J. 2010. Effects of an MHC-DRB genotype and allele number on the load of gut parasites in the bank vole Myodes glareolus. Molecular Ecology, 19: 255-265. pdf
  • Nadachowska K., Flis I., Babik W. 2010. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni). Herpetological Journal, 20: 107-110. pdf
  • Radwan J., Biedrzycka A., Babik W.. 2010. Does reduced MHC diversity decrease viability of vertebrate populations? Biological Conservation, 143: 537-544. pdf
  • Radwan J., Demiaszkiewicz A.W., Kowalczyk R., Lachowicz J., Kawałko A., Wójcik J.M., Pyziel A.M., Babik W. 2010. An evaluation of two potential risk factors, MHC diversity and host density, for infection by an invasive nematode Ashworthius sidemi in endangered European bison (Bison bonasus). Biological Conservation, 143: 2049-2053. pdf
  • Zagalska-Neubauer M., Babik W., Stuglik M., Gustafsson L., Cichoń M., Radwan J. 2010. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 395. pdf


  • Babik W., Butlin R.K., Baker W.J., Papadopulos A.S.T., Boulesteix M., Anstett M.-C.,Lexer C., Hutton I., Savolainen V. 2009. How sympatric is speciation in the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island? Molecular Ecology, 18: 3629-3638. pdf
  • Babik W., Pabijan M. Arntzen J.W., Cogalniceanu D., Durka W., Radwan J. 2009 Long-term survival of a urodele amphibian despite depleted MHC variation. Molecular Ecology, 18: 769-781. pdf
  • Babik W., Taberlet P., Ejsmond M.J., Radwan J. 2009. New generation sequencers as a tool for genotyping of highly polymorphic multilocus MHC system. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 713-719. pdf
  • Espregueira Themudo G., Babik W., Arntzen, J.W. 2009. A combination of techniques proves useful in the development of nuclear markers in the genus Triturus. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 1160-1162. pdf
  • Nadachowska K., Babik W. 2009. Divergence in the Face of Gene Flow: The Case of Two Newts (Amphibia: Salamandridae), 26: 829-841. pdf
  • Stark C., Babik W., Durka W. 2009. Fungi from the roots of the common terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia conopsea. Mycological Research, 113: 952-952. pdf


  • Babik W., Pabijan M., Radwan J. 2008. Contrasting patterns of variation in MHC loci in the Alpine newt. Molecular Ecology, 17: 2339-2355. pdf
  • Osikowski A., Babik W., Grzmil P., Szymura J.M. 2008. Multiple sex pheromone genes are expressed in the abdominal glands of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) and Montandon's newt (L. montandoni) (Salamandridae). Zoological Science, 25: 587-592. pdf


  • Babik W., Radwan J. 2007. Sequence diversity of MHC class II DRB genes in the bank vole Myodes glareolus. Acta Theriologica, 52: 227-235. pdf
  • Hofman S., Spolsky C., Uzzell T., Cogalniceanu D., Babik W. , Szymura J.M. 2007. Phylogeography of the fire-bellied toads, Bombina: independent Pleistocene histories inferred from mitochondrial genomes. Molecular Ecology, 16: 2301-2316. pdf
  • Radwan J., Kawałko A., Wójcik J.M., Babik W. 2007. MHC-DRB3 variation in a free-living population of the European bison Bison bonasus. Molecular Ecology, 16: 531-540. pdf



  • Pabijan M., Babik W. 2006. Genetic structure in northeastern populations of the Alpine newt (Triturus alpestris): evidence for post-Pleistocene differentiation. Molecular Ecology, 15: 2397-2407. pdf



  • Babik W. , Branicki W., Crnobrnja-Isailovic J., Cogalniceanu D. , Sas I., Olgun K., Poyarkov N.A., Garcia-Paris M , Arntzen J.W. 2005. Phylogeography of two European newt species: discordance between mtDNA and morphology. Molecular Ecology, 14: 2475-2491. pdf
  • Babik W. , Durka W., Radwan J. Sequence diversity of the MHC DRB gene in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber). 2005. Molecular Ecology, 14: 4249-4257. pdf
  • Durka W., Babik W. , Ducroz J.-F., Heidecke D. Rosell F., Samjaa R., Saveljev A., Stubbe A., Ulevicius A., Stubbe M. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L. Molecular Ecology, 14: 3843-3856. pdf
  • Pabijan M., Babik W. , Rafiński J. 2005. Conservation units in north-eastern populations of the Alpine newt (Triturus alpestris). Conservation Genetics, 6: 307-312. pdf


2004 i wcześniejsze

  • Babik W. 2004. Montandon's (Carpathian) newt, Triturus montandoni (Boulenger, 1880). [In:] Adamski P., Bartel R., Bereszynski A., Kepel A., Witkowski A. (eds.) Animal species (except birds). Guidelines for the habitats and species conservation Natura 2000 - a methodological manual, vol. 6, pp. 294-297. Ministry of Environment, Warszawa. (In Polish).
  • Babik W. , Branicki W., Sandera M., Litvinchuk S., Borkin L.J., Irwin J.T., Rafiński J. 2004. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the moor frog, Rana arvalis. Molecular Ecology, 13: 1469-1480. pdf
  • Babik W. , Rafiński J. 2004. Relationship between morphometric and genetic variation in pure and hybrid populations of the smooth and Montandon's newt (Triturus vulgaris and T. montandoni). Journal of Zoology (London), 262: 135-143. pdf
  • Rafiński J., Babik W. 2004. Great crested newt - Triturus cristatus. [In:] Głowaciński Z., Rafiński J (eds.) The Atlas of Polish Amphibians and Reptilesi, pp.30-32. Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN and WSiP, Kraków-Warszawa. (In Polish with English summary).
  • Rafiński J., Babik W. 2004. Montandon's (Carpathian) newt - Triturus montandoni. [In:] Głowaciński Z., Rafiński J (eds.) The Atlas of Polish Amphibians and Reptiles, pp. 37-39. Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN and WSiP, Kraków-Warszawa. (In Polish with English summary).
  • Babik W. , Szymura J.M., Rafiński J. 2003. Nuclear markers, mitochondrial DNA and male secondary sexual traits variation in a newt hybrid zone (Triturus vulgaris x T. montandoni). Molecular Ecology, 12: 1913-1930. pdf
  • Rafiński J., Babik W. 2003. Amphibians and reptiles of the Magura National Park. [In:] Górecki A., Krzemień K., Skiba S. (ed.) The Nature of the Magura National Park, pp. 119-123. Magurski Park Narodowy i Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Krempna-Kraków. (In Polish with English summary).
  • Rafiński J., Cogalniceanu D., Babik W. 2001. Genetic differentiation of the two subspecies of the smooth newt inhabiting Romania, Triturus vulgaris vulgaris and T. v. ampelensis (Urodela, Salamandridae) as revealed by enzyme electrophoresis. Folia Biologica (Krakow), 49: 239-245. pdf
  • Babik W. , Rafiński J. 2001. Amphibian breeding site characteristics in the Western Carpathians, Poland. Herpetological Journal, 11: 41-51. pdf
  • Babik W. 2000. On the origin of species (especially Cichlids) by means of sympatric speciation. Wszechświat, 101: 19-22. (In Polish).
  • Babik W. 2000. Size doesn't matter? On the giant sperm in Drosophila. Wszechświat, 101: 111-114. (In Polish).
  • Babik W., Rafiński J. 2000. Morphometric differentiation of the moor frog (Rana arvalis Nilss.) in Central Europe. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 38: 239-247. pdf
  • Rafiński J., Babik W. 2000. Genetic differentiation among northern and southern populations of the moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson in Central Europe. Heredity, 54: 610-618. pdf
  • Babik W. 1998. Intrageneric predation in larval newts (Triturus, Salamandridae: Urodela). Amphibia-Reptilia, 19: 446-451.